Native, endemic, and introduced vascular plants from the Galápagos Islands were processed for phytolith extraction. Modern plant specimens of 43 species were collected in the field considering the possible uses of these plant species during the first years of colonization of San Cristóbal Island, Galápagos (1860s). This comparative illustrated catalog is limited to test the production of phytoliths in useful endemic, native, and introduced plant taxa. The results provided the main elements to discriminate morphotypes from native and introduced plants in San Cristóbal. This catalog will guide future paleoethnobotanical research in the Galápagos and other archipelagos of the far eastern pacific islands.