Una nueva perspectiva de interacción entre los Derechos Humanos y el Derecho Internacional Humanitario

El uso de medios menos nocivos como un principio que gobierna los conflictos armados

  • Gabriela Monserrat Flores Villacís University College London (UCL)
Palabras clave: Derechos Humanos, Derecho Humanitario, interacción de los regímenes, medios menos nocivos, derecho a la vida, combatientes

Resumen

Durante un conflicto armado, la interacción entre el Derecho Internacional Humanitario y el Derecho Internacional de los Derechos Humanos ha sido siempre controversial y, por lo general, ha sido resuelto priorizando las reglas derivadas del primero y minimizando la aplicación de las del segundo. En la práctica, esto se ha traducido en estándares insuficientes de protección a los individuos y, más específicamente, en la aceptación de un irrestricto derecho a matar de los combatientes hacia sus enemigos. No obstante, este artículo sugiere un enfoque novedoso de interacción entre estos dos regímenes: el Derecho Internacional de los Derechos Humanos debería servir como una herramienta de interpretación de las normas del Derecho Internacional Humanitario, con el fin de fortalecer el nivel de protección disponible en las normas de este último y lograr así la garantía efectiva de los derechos de los individuos durante las hostilidades. Con respecto al derecho a la vida, esta interpretación requeriría el abandono de la idea del derecho a matar y, en su lugar, requerir el uso de medios menos nocivos durante las operaciones militares, cuando sea posible. El recurrir a fuerza letal debería ser permitido únicamente en aquellos casos en que la necesidad militar lo justifique, de manera que se evite causar a los individuos más daño del estrictamente requerido. El propósito de este artículo no es propugnar una prohibición absoluta de matar a los combatientes enemigos –pues la naturaleza de los conflictos armados tornaría inalcanzable una regla de esas características–; sin embargo, sí es establecer un principio capaz de guiar la conducta de los combatientes hacia una conducción de hostilidades más humana.

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Biografía del autor/a

Gabriela Monserrat Flores Villacís, University College London (UCL)

University College London, WC1E 6BT, London, UK.

Citas

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Publicado
2018-08-28
Cómo citar
Flores Villacís, G. M. «Una Nueva Perspectiva De interacción Entre Los Derechos Humanos Y El Derecho Internacional Humanitario: El Uso De Medios Menos Nocivos Como Un Principio Que Gobierna Los Conflictos Armados». USFQ Law Review, Vol. 5, n.º 1, agosto de 2018, pp. 234-61, doi:10.18272/lr.v5i1.1226.
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