Conflictos armados en el espacio ultraterrestre

Aplicación y retos del Derecho Internacional Humanitario

  • Juan Felipe Idrovo Romo Universidad San Francisco de Quito USFQ (Quito, Ecuador)
Palabras clave: Derecho Internacional Humanitario, Derecho Internacional Espacial, espacio ultraterrestre, aplicabilidad, retos, línea K´ármán, participación directa, nuevas armas, objetos de uso dual, estándares de diligencia

Resumen

El artículo explora de forma crítica aquellos escenarios (hipotéticos, pero probables) en los que conflictos armados se desarrollan en el espacio ultraterrestre. En primer lugar, se analizará el problema relativo a la definición y delimitación del espacio ultraterrestre. Al respecto, se expondrán las razones por las que no existe un consenso entre los Estados e, inclusive, dentro de la comunidad científica. Posteriormente, se introducirán las ramas del Derecho Internacional Público relevantes en la materia (Derecho Internacional Espacial, Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Ius ad Bellum) y se identificarán normas clave. En este punto, se expondrán las principales razones, basadas en fuentes formales y auxiliares del DIP, por las que el Derecho Internacional Humanitario debe ser aplicado en caso de que un conflicto armado se desarrollase en el espacio ultraterrestre. De igual manera, se expondrán y analizarán retos concretos que la aplicación del DIH en el espacio ultraterrestre podría suponer en relación con la posibilidad de: (i) ataques a objetos de uso dual; (ii) las obligaciones de las partes del conflicto cuando existe participación humana directa o física en el espacio; y, (iii) las normas aplicables para el desarrollo y uso de armas nuevas. Para cada problema planteado se proporcionarán posibles soluciones basadas las normas y principios del derecho existente. Finalmente, se enfatizará en la necesidad de la eventual creación de un tratado específico que regule la materia, en vista de la naturaleza única de este tipo de conflictos.

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Biografía del autor/a

Juan Felipe Idrovo Romo, Universidad San Francisco de Quito USFQ (Quito, Ecuador)

Universidad San Francisco de Quito USFQ, estudiante del Colegio de Jurisprudencia

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Publicado
2020-09-14
Cómo citar
Idrovo Romo, J. F. «Conflictos Armados En El Espacio Ultraterrestre: Aplicación Y Retos Del Derecho Internacional Humanitario». USFQ Law Review, Vol. 7, n.º 1, septiembre de 2020, pp. 335-57, doi:10.18272/ulr.v7i1.1737.
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Artículos